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    The central processing unit (CPU) is one of the most core components in a modern computer system, which undertakes the important task of performing computing tasks and controlling computer operations. However, for the manufacturing process and technology of the CPU, many people only understand the surface. This article will deeply reveal the manufacturing process and technology of CPU, introduce each link from wafer preparation to packaging and testing, and discuss advanced manufacturing technology, such as process technology, material science and process innovation, etc., to unveil the mystery of CPU manufacturing for readers .

    Wafer Preparation

    The CPU manufacturing process starts with wafer preparation, which is the basis for building electronic components on semiconductor materials. Wafer preparation includes the following key steps:

    Single Crystal Material Growth

    The wafers used by CPUs are usually made of silicon (Si) material. Single crystal material growth is the process of melting high-purity silicon material and gradually cooling it to form a single crystal. This process can be realized by methods such as Czochralski method, floating zone method or epitaxy method.

    Wafer dicing

    After the single crystal material is grown, the bulk of the single crystal silicon needs to be cut into thin slices, or wafers. Wafer dicing is done with grinding or dicing machinery to obtain wafers of a specific size and thickness.

    Cleaning and Handling

    The diced wafers are cleaned and surface treated to remove contaminants and oxide layers to ensure the purity and surface quality of the wafers.


    Photolithography is a crucial step in CPU manufacturing and is used to transfer circuit patterns onto wafers. Photolithography involves the following steps:

    Photomask fabrication

    First, the designer will make a photomask according to the design requirements, which contains the information of the circuit pattern. Photomasks are usually coated with photoresist on a transparent glass or quartz plate and patterned using techniques such as electron beam exposure or laser etching.

    Photoresist Coating

    The wafer surface is pre-treated and then coated with a layer of photoresist. The photoresist has a chemical reaction under light to form a solubility difference, which is used to protect the photoresist layer of the circuit pattern.


    By aligning the photomask with the wafer and illuminating it with a light source, the pattern on the photomask is projected onto the photoresist layer. During exposure, the chemical properties of the photoresist change, creating the developed and non-developed areas of the pattern.


    Development is to dissolve the developer in the photoresist, so that only the pattern part remains in the photoresist layer. During development, the developer reacts with exposed and unexposed areas of the photoresist to reveal the pattern.

    Cleaning and inspection

    Finally, the wafer is cleaned and inspected to ensure the quality and accuracy of the photolithographic pattern. The cleaning process removes remaining photoresist and contamination, while inspection is used to verify pattern integrity and accuracy.

    Process technology

    Process technology is a key link in CPU manufacturing, involving the formation of circuits, the formation of insulating layers and the preparation of electronic devices. The following are several commonly used process technologies:


    Deposition is the process of depositing a thin film on the surface of the wafer, and the common ones are chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD). The deposited thin films can be used to form conductive, insulating or protective layers.


    Etching is the process of removing thin films by chemical or physical means. Etching can be used to form circuit details, remove excess material, or adjust material thickness.

    Ion Implantation

    Ion implantation changes the conductivity of the wafer material by accelerating ions and injecting them into the wafer surface. Ion implantation is used to form the source and drain regions and control gates of the transistors.


    Annealing is the process of treating the wafer at high temperature to change the structure and properties of the material. Annealing relieves stress, improves crystal quality, and improves the characteristics of electronic devices.

    Packaging and testing

    After manufacturing, the CPU needs to be packaged and tested for connection with other electronic devices and functional verification.


    Packaging is to place the manufactured CPU chip in a plastic or ceramic package and connect the pins to provide electrical connection and protection. Packaging can be done via Surface Mount Technology (SMT) or Pin Technology (PTH).

    Surface mount technology: The CPU chip is directly pasted on the surface of the printed circuit board (PCB) by soldering technology. This technology has the advantages of high density, small size and high performance, and is suitable for most modern electronic devices.

    Pin technology: The CPU chip is inserted into the pin package through pins to connect with other components. This technology is suitable for some special applications, such as industrial equipment or military equipment.


    After the packaging is complete, the CPU needs to undergo various tests to ensure its performance and reliability. Testing usually includes functional testing, electrical parameter testing, temperature testing and reliability testing, etc. A CPU chip is considered qualified only if it passes the various tests and meets the specified standards.

    Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    With the continuous advancement of technology, CPU manufacturing technology is also constantly evolving and innovating. The following are some examples of advanced manufacturing technologies:

    FinFET technology

    FinFET is a three-dimensional transistor structure. Compared with traditional planar transistors, it has better current control ability and the effect of suppressing leakage current. FinFET technology enables CPUs to run at lower voltages and higher performance.

    EUV lithography technology

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is a high-precision lithography technology that uses an EUV light source with an extremely short wavelength for exposure. Compared with traditional ultraviolet lithography technology, EUV lithography technology can realize smaller-sized circuit patterns and improve the integration of CPU.

    3D stacking technology

    Three-dimensional stacking technology is to vertically stack multiple chips together to form a three-dimensional structure. This technology can increase chip integration, reduce size and power consumption, and improve communication efficiency between chips.

    Application of new materials

    In addition to traditional silicon materials, the application of some new materials also plays an important role in the manufacture of CPUs. For example, graphene is considered a next-generation material with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity properties, and is expected to play an important role in future CPU manufacturing.

    In conclusion, CPU manufacturing process and technology is a challenging and innovative field. Through in-depth understanding of wafer preparation, lithography technology, process technology, packaging and testing, etc., we can better understand the working principle and application of CPU, and look forward to the continuous emergence of higher performance and more advanced CPU technology . As the core of modern computer systems, CPU is of great significance to promote technological progress and social development.


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