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    What is the thermoelectric effect?


    The thermoelectron effect is also caused by an increase in electric field strength due to a reduction in device size.The strong electric field keeps the instantaneous velocity of the carrier increasing while the average velocity of the carrier is saturated, and the kinetic energy is also increasing.An electron having a much higher energy than that at the time of heat balance is called a hot electron.The magnitude of the substrate current is not only related to the process parameters, but also to the voltage applied to the drain depletion region and the drain current.related.This current acts as a Resistors from the drain to the substrate. When V吣 is large, the substrate current has a negligible effect on the output resistance.Considering the effects of the short-channel effect, it is necessary to make necessary modifications to the model of the MOS device.In submicron T art, for analog circuits, the gate length of a MOS transistor is not designed with a minimum size in many cases.


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