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  • Ten Daily Electronic Common Sense-Section 34

    What are the main components of the Verilog HDL circuit module?

    The general structure of Verilog HDL circuit module mainly includes three parts: module declaration, port declaration and logic function description.

    From a programming point of view, what are the working states of ARM microprocessors?

    There are generally two working states of the ARM microprocessor, and it can be switched between the two states.

    What kinds of commonly used packages?

    The commonly used predefined packages are: STANDARD package, TEXTIO package, STD_0GIC_1164 package, STD_LOGIC_ARITH package, STD_LOGIC_UNSIGNED package and STD LOGIC_SIGNED package.

    What is a broadcast domain?

    If broadcast packets are used too much in the network, it will occupy more bandwidth and reduce the processing efficiency of the device. Therefore, broadcast packets must be restricted.
    For example, ARP uses the slave port address of the broadcast message to resolve the MAC address, and the destination MAC address in the broadcast message is all “1”, that is, “FFFF.
    FFFF.FFFF” is the broadcast address, and all nodes in the network will process data frames whose destination address is the broadcast address. This kind of set of nodes that a node sends a broadcast message and other nodes can receive is a broadcast domain.
    For example, a Layer 2 switch can forward unicast packets according to the MAC table, and forward broadcast packets to all ports (except the receiving port).
    Therefore, the nodes connected to all ports of the Layer 2 switch belong to a broadcast domain, but each port of the Layer 2 switch belongs to a separate collision domain.

    Which of the following basic components does a typical wirelessHART network include?

    1. Field devices installed in the factory process;
    2. Handheld device: a handheld WirelessHART computer used for device configuration, diagnostics and performance calibration;
    3. Gateway: used to connect the host computer and field devices;
    4. Network manager: responsible for configuration Network, schedule and manage communications between WirelessHART devices.

    What are the characteristics of the Spartan-3E series?

    The meter adopts 90nm process; a large number of user I/O ports can support up to 376 I/O ports or 156 pairs of differential ports; the port voltages are 3.3V, 2.5V, 1.8V, 1.5V, and 1.2V. The transmission rate of the single-ended port can reach 622Mbit/s and supports DDR interface. Up to 36 dedicated multipliers, 648 RAMs, 231 distributed RAMs. Wide clock frequency and multiple dedicated on-chip digital clock management (DCM) blocks.

    What are the two basic assumptions based on the establishment of modern application layer software?

    • Any CAN node can send the arranged message stream without releasing the CAN bus between two messages. These nodes arbitrate the CAN bus immediately after sending the last message and only release the CAN bus when arbitration is lost.
    • Arrange the internal message queue in the CAN node, so if there are multiple messages to be sent, the highest priority message is sent first.

    Which modules does the MAX 7000 include on the fabric?

    MAX 7000 includes Logic Array Block LAB (Logic Array Block), Macrocell (Macrocell), Expand Product Term (Expender Product Term) – shared and parallel, Programmable Interconnect Array PIA (Programmable Interconnect Array) and I/ o Control Block (I/o Control Block).

    What are the pin functions of the Motorola MC68HC908GP32?

    1. The power supply pins (VDD and VSS) (VDD and VSS) are the power supply and power supply ground pins respectively, VDD is the main power supply of the microcontroller, 5 V or 3 V can be selected according to the model of the chip. For proper microcontroller operation, VSS must be grounded.
    2. Power pin (VDDA/VSSA) VDDA/VSSA is the power supply and power ground pin of the clock generator module.
    3. Crystal oscillator pins (OSCl and OSC2) OSCl and OSC2 pins are the pins for external crystal oscillator components.
    4. External Reset Pin (RST) A low level on the RST pin places the microcontroller in a predetermined initial state. A pull-up resistor is integrated inside this pin.
    5. External interrupt pin (IRQ/VPP) IRQ/VPP is an asynchronous external interrupt pin and programming high voltage input. A pull-up resistor is integrated inside this pin.
    6. Analog power pin (VDDAD/VSSAD) VDDAD/VSSAD is the power supply and power ground pin of the microcontroller A/D module.
    7. A/D module reference voltage pin (VREFH/VREFL) VREFH/VREFL is the high-voltage/low-voltage reference voltage input pin of the A/D module.
    8. External Filter Capacitor Pin (CGMXFC) CGMXFC is the external filter capacitor pin of the PLL.
    9. Input/output (I/O) pin PTA7- PTA0 8 pins of port A are general-purpose bidirectional port pins with keyboard wake-up function. PTB7- PTB0 of port 8 are bidirectional port pins with multiplexing functions, and the analog input channels AD7- AD0 of the A/D converter share pins with them. Port C’s PTC6 to PTC0 are the only single-function bidirectional port pins. PTD7 to PTD0 of port D are bidirectional port pins with multiplexed functions. T2CH1/T2CH0 channel of timer TIM2 occupies PTD7/PTD6 pin; TlCH1/TlCH0 channel of timer TIM1 occupies PTD5/PTD4 pin; SPSCK/MOSI/MIS0/SS of SPI occupies 4 pins of PTD3~PTD0. PTEl/PTE0 of port E is a bidirectional port pin with multiplexing function. The RxD/TxD of SCl shares the pin with it.

    How is the CGI program communicated?

    When data is transmitted from the browser to the web server, the server will pass the received data into the QUERY-STRING or variable according to the type of transmission (basically there are two types: GET/POST). The CGI program can pass the standard Input, receive these data in the program.

    When sending information to the browser, as long as the specific file header information is sent to the Web server, the information can be sent to the Web server through the standard output. After the Web server processes the information sent by the CGI program, it will send the information. Sent to the browser, this is how CGI programs communicate.


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