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  • Ten Daily Electronic Common Sense-Section 74

    When choosing an IC card adapter, there are several important indicators that cannot be ignored.

    1. Electrical properties of the contacts.
    2. The plug-in life of the IC card holder.
    3. The degree of wear on the card.
    4. The position difference of the card from good contact to effective identification.
    5. Price factor.

    What is the function of the logic pulse generator?

    The logic pulse signal generator can generate pulse signals with adjustable repetition frequency, pulse width and amplitude. It is widely used in dynamic characteristic testing of pulse circuits and digital circuits. For example, it can be used to test the transient response of linear systems, or as an analog signal to test the performance of radar, multiplexed communications and other pulsed digital systems. Pulse signal generators generally output rectangular waves as standard signals. The output rectangular pulse signal is divided into two types: single pulse and double pulse.

    What is the WirelessHART Timer Module?

    This is a core component of the timer design. The WirelessHART timer module is based on hardware timers. When a timeout causes an interrupt, the WirelessHART timer module first checks its own state to determine the semantics of the timeout. Then execute the corresponding code (if necessary, trigger a timeout event to the upper MAC layer), and then set the next timer timeout time.

    What is the purpose of the capacitor?

    • There are many uses of capacitors, mainly as follows:
      1. Blocking DC: The function is to prevent DC from passing through and allow AC to pass.
      2. Bypass (Decoupling): Provides a low impedance path for certain parallel components in an AC circuit.
      3. Coupling: As a connection between two circuits, allowing the AC signal to pass and transmit to the next stage circuit.
      4. Filtering: This is very important for DIY, and the capacitors on the graphics card are basically the same.
      5. Temperature compensation: Compensate for the influence of other components’ insufficient adaptability to temperature to improve the stability of the circuit.
      6. Timing: Capacitors are used in conjunction with resistors to determine the time constant of a circuit.
      7. Tuning: System tuning of frequency-dependent circuits, such as cell phones, radios, and televisions.
      8. Rectification: Turning on or off a semiconductor switching element at a predetermined time. 9. Energy Storage: Stores electrical energy and releases it when necessary. For example camera flashes, heating equipment, etc. (The energy storage level of some capacitors today is close to the level of lithium batteries, and the energy stored in a capacitor can last a day for a mobile phone.)

    What is photoelectric property?

    Photoelectric characteristics refer to the relationship curve between the anode voltage of the photocell and the luminous flux and the photocurrent (output current), so it is also called the input-output characteristic.

    What should I pay attention to when using Altera’s configuration chip?

    Make sure the configuration chip is properly programmed. Use the Quartus II programmer tool to verify that the configuration device is programmed correctly. If no DCLK or DATA is issued in the configuration device, then the configuration chip may be in slave mode or empty. If using the enhanced configuration chip, make sure that all pins are handled properly. The PGM pins cannot be left floating, they should be pulled to a fixed level to select the page where the configuration file is located. If using an enhanced configuration device, the external Flash interface pins should be left floating or set to a high-impedance state when performing In System Programming and configuring the FPGA.

    What kinds of working modes does PLC have?

    PLC has two basic working modes: RUN (running) and STOP (programming).

    Stacked silicon interconnect technology problem answer:

    The 3D packaging method known as “stacked silicon interconnect technology” uses passive chip interposers, microbumps and through silicon via (TSV) technologies to enable a multi-chip programmable platform. For those market applications that require high density transistors and logic, as well as extreme processing power and bandwidth performance. These 28nm platforms will provide greater capacity, richer resources, and significantly lower power consumption compared to single-chip approaches.

    1. What does “beyond Moore’s Law” mean?
      A: So far, all process nodes of FPGA have followed Moore’s Law, doubling the logic capacity and reducing the cost by half. Unfortunately, relying solely on the development speed of Moore’s Law can no longer meet the market’s endless demand for more resources and higher foundry yields within the controllable power consumption range. Stacked silicon interconnect technology enables Xilinx to deliver a programmable solution that effectively addresses these challenges.
    2. Why can’t customers simply connect two or more FPGAs to achieve large-scale designs?
      A: This simple connection method has three major disadvantages: First, the number of available I/Os is limited, which is not enough to connect the complex network for signal transmission between different FPGAs in the partition design, and it is also difficult to connect the FPGA to other devices in the system. Second, the delay in transmitting signals between FPGAs limits performance. The third is that creating logical connections between multiple FPGAs using standard device I/Os can cause unnecessary power consumption.
    3. Are there special thermal management requirements when using stacked silicon interconnect technology?
      Answer: No. Since the interposer is passive, there are no heat dissipation issues other than the heat dissipation of the FPGA chip. Therefore, if such a large monolithic device can be manufactured, an FPGA product using stacked silicon interconnect technology is equivalent to a single chip.
    4. Is the stacked silicon interconnect technology reliable?
      A: Yes, very reliable. Due to the thinner silicon interposer, the stress of the internal buildup can be effectively reduced. Generally speaking, the internal stress of the stacked silicon interconnect technology package structure is lower than that of a single flip-chip BGA package of the same size, which reduces the maximum plastic strain of the package and improves the thermo-mechanical performance.
    5. Who are the FPGAs produced by the stacked silicon interconnect technology?
      A: Any customer who needs a high-density FPGA beyond existing logic density levels can benefit from FPGA products with stacked silicon interconnect technology. Customers in markets such as communications, medical, test and measurement, aerospace and defense, high-performance computing, and ASIC prototyping (simulation). When they look to use FPGAs to deploy their next-generation, most demanding applications, they will have the opportunity to benefit from the early availability of the most resourceful FPGA devices. Designers who previously used multiple FPGAs in a system will enjoy higher bandwidth and lower power consumption between FPGA chips because there is no need to drive chips through I/O interfaces and PCB traces between adjacent FPGAs , and a faster way to connect.
    6. What design guidelines does Xilinx have for products using stacked silicon interconnect technology?
      A: Xilinx’s ISE Design Suite will provide new capabilities to facilitate the design of FPGA products based on stacked silicon interconnect technology. There are Design Rule Checks (DRCs) and software information to guide users through the logic placement and routing between FPGA chips. In addition, PlanAhead and FPGAEditor functions enhance the graphical representation of FPGA devices based on stacked silicon interconnect technology, facilitating interactive design floorplanning, analysis and debugging. At the same time, we are also writing and launching application manuals that provide users with detailed guidance on best design practices.
    7. Do customers have to do design partitioning? Can the software do design partitioning directly for them?
      A: The software automatically assigns the design to the FPGA chip without any user intervention. If desired, customers can perform logic floorplanning in specific FPGA chips. In the absence of any such constraints, software tools allow algorithms to intelligently place relevant logic within an FPGA chip and follow inter-chip and intra-chip connection and timing rules.

    What are the devices installed in the general architecture of the PLC access system?

    1. The network terminal unit (NTU) serves as the interface between the PLC network and the end user.
    2. The low-voltage relay ensures proper communication between the low-voltage top end and the NTU.
    3. The low-voltage top connects the NTU to the medium-voltage modem, or directly to the remote interface of the NTU.
    4. The medium voltage modem establishes the communication between the low voltage top and the medium voltage top by using the medium voltage power network.
    5. The top of the medium voltage is connected to the corresponding medium voltage network and the medium voltage modem in the central network.

    What is the detection method of the electrode type liquid level sensor?

    When it is suspected that the liquid level sensor is faulty, the sensor to be detected can be installed on the battery with normal liquid level, and its performance test can be carried out. If the test light does not light up at this time, it means that the performance of the electrode type liquid level sensor assembly is good.


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